Pétain, Philippe


Pétain, Philippe
(1856-1951)
   military and political figure
   A hero of World War I who was later condemned as a traitor for having led the pro-German regime at vichy, Philippe Pétain was born in Cauchy-à-la-Tour and educated at saint-cyr and the École supérieure de Guerre in Paris. Named general in August 1914, he took part in the Battles of the Marne (September 1914), at Artois (May 1915), and at Champagne (September 1915) before being called to defend verdun (February 1916). Pétain's greatest victory was at verdun, where the French retained the fortresses against great German odds during World War I. In 1917, he also issued the brutal order condemning to death a large number of mutineers in the French ranks. After Chemin des Dames, he replaced General georges nivelle as commander in chief and was subordinate only to Marshal Ferdinand foch. Pétain was made a marshal of France in November 1918 and, after the war, held various high-command positions, including command in the Rif war in North Africa (1925). In 1934, he became minister of war and, in 1939, ambassador to Spain. In May 1940, during World War II, he was recalled by paul reynaud to serve as vice president of the Council of Ministers. At that point, Pétain already considered the war to be lost, and thus opposed Reynaud's plan to continue the struggle in the colonies. Becoming president of the Council of Ministers at Bordeaux in June 1940, Pétain ordered an armistice. on July 1, he set up a government at vichy and, on July 10, was given full powers by the National Assembly there, which declared him head of the French state. Pétain attempted, with his prime minister pierre laval, to maintain a French nation within a Europe dominated by Nazi Germany. But their fascist-oriented government became notorious for its collaboration with Hitler, whom Pétain met through the arrangement of Laval, at Montoire in October 1940. The vichy regime ruled only with Germany's approval, appointing all government officials, controlling the press, and making arbitrary arrests. The government also passed anti-Semitic laws and rounded up many Jews and others who were deported to German concentration camps. After the Allies landed in France in 1944, Pétain went to Germany, then Switzerland. He returned to France after the war to stand trial for treason. In August 1945, he was found guilty and condemned to death by the High Court, but the sentence was commuted to life imprisonment. He was moved to the Île d'Yeu off the coast of Brittany, where he died.

France. A reference guide from Renaissance to the Present . 1884.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Pétain, Philippe — ▪ French general born April 24, 1856, Cauchy à la Tour, Fr. died July 23, 1951, Île d Yeu  French general who was a national hero for his victory at the Battle of Verdun (Verdun, Battle of) in World War I but was discredited as chief of state of… …   Universalium

  • Petain — Philippe Pétain « Pétain » redirige ici. Pour les autres significations, voir Pétain (homonymie) …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Philippe Petain — Philippe Pétain « Pétain » redirige ici. Pour les autres significations, voir Pétain (homonymie) …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Pétain — Philippe Pétain « Pétain » redirige ici. Pour les autres significations, voir Pétain (homonymie) …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Philippe Pétain — Chief of the French State In office 11 July 1940 – 19 August 1944 Preceded by …   Wikipedia

  • Philippe Pétain — Pétain en 1930 …   Wikipedia Español

  • Petain — Philippe Pétain Henri Philippe Benoni Omer Joseph Pétain (* 24. April 1856 in Cauchy à la Tour, Département Pas de Calais; † 23. Juli 1951 auf der Île d Yeu) wurde im Ersten Weltkrieg nach seinen Abwehrerfolgen im Jahre 1916 („Held von Verdun“)… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Philippe Petain — Philippe Pétain Henri Philippe Benoni Omer Joseph Pétain (* 24. April 1856 in Cauchy à la Tour, Département Pas de Calais; † 23. Juli 1951 auf der Île d Yeu) wurde im Ersten Weltkrieg nach seinen Abwehrerfolgen im Jahre 1916 („Held von Verdun“)… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Pétain — Philippe Pétain Henri Philippe Benoni Omer Joseph Pétain (* 24. April 1856 in Cauchy à la Tour, Département Pas de Calais; † 23. Juli 1951 auf der Île d Yeu) wurde im Ersten Weltkrieg nach seinen Abwehrerfolgen im Jahre 1916 („Held von Verdun“)… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • PÉTAIN (P.) — PÉTAIN PHILIPPE (1856 1951) maréchal de France De famille modeste, Philippe Pétain sortit de Saint Cyr en 1876. Après avoir été professeur à l’École de guerre, il était colonel commandant un régiment d’infanterie à Arras à la déclaration de… …   Encyclopédie Universelle


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